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Electronic equipment

Electronic amplifier

An electronic amplifier is a device that can amplify electrical power. Devices that amplify only current or voltage (for example, transformers) are not among the amplifiers. The principle of operation of an electronic amplifier is based on a change in its active or reactive resistance of electrical conductivity in gases, vacuum and semiconductors under the influence of a low-power signal. An electronic amplifier can be either a standalone device or a unit (functional unit) as part of any equipment - a radio receiver, tape recorder, measuring device, etc. In analog amplifiers, an analog input signal without digital conversion is amplified by analog amplifier stages. Analog output without digital conversion is applied to the analog load. In digital amplifiers, after analog amplification of an input analog signal by analog amplifier cascades up to a value sufficient for analog-digital conversion by an analog-digital converter (ADC), analog-digital conversion of the analog value (voltage) into a digital value - number (code) takes place corresponding to the voltage value of the input analog signal. A digital value (number, code) is either directly fed through buffer control amplifier stages to a digital output actuator, or fed to a powerful digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a powerful analog output signal of which is fed to an analog output actuator.

Phase inverter

A phase inverter is a device that converts the output signal into 2 signals that are 180 out of phase. In acoustics - a port (pipe, slot, etc.) in the speaker enclosure, providing an extension of the low-frequency range due to the resonance of this pipe at a frequency lower than that reproduced by a speaker or other source of oscillations. In electronics, it is performed on an electron tube, a transistor and an operational amplifier, and other electronic devices. Used, for example, in radio devices, measuring equipment. The phase shift in the stages with a common cathode, with a common emitter is 180. Cascades with a common anode, with a common collector, with a common grid, with a common base, do not shift the phase of the input signal. When the primary and secondary windings are turned on, the transformer shifts the phase by approximately 180, with the opposite switching on of the windings, the phase shift is approximately 360. To obtain antiphase signals, a transformer with a grounded tap from the midpoint of the secondary winding is used.


Comparator of analog signals (from Latin comparare compare) - comparing device: electronic circuit that receives two analog signals to its inputs and outputs a high level signal if the signal at a non-inverting input (+) is greater than at an inverting (inverse) an input (-), and a low level signal if the signal at a non-inverting input is less than at an inverse input. The value of the output signal of the comparator with equal input voltages, in the general case is not defined. Usually in logic circuits, a high level signal is assigned a value of logic 1, and a low level is assigned a logic one. Through comparators, a connection is made between continuous signals, such as voltages, and logical variables of digital devices. Used in various electronic devices, ADC and DAC, alarm devices, tolerance control, etc.


A signal generator is a device that allows you to receive a signal of a certain nature (electrical, acoustic, etc.) that has specified characteristics (shape, energy or statistical characteristics, etc.). Generators are widely used for signal conversion, for measurement and in other areas. It consists of a source (a device with self-excitation, for example, an amplifier covered by a positive feedback circuit) and a driver (for example, an electric filter). Most generators are DC / AC converters. Low-power generators are built on single-ended amplifier cascades. More powerful single-phase generators are built on two-stroke (half-bridge) amplifying stages, which have higher efficiency and allow building a generator with approximately twice as much power on transistors of the same power. Single-phase generators of even greater power are built according to a four-stroke (full-bridge) circuit, which allows approximately another doubling of the generator power. Two-phase and three-phase two-stroke (half-bridge) and four-stroke (full-bridge) generators have even more power.


A microcontroller is a chip designed to control electronic devices. A typical microcontroller combines the functions of a processor and peripheral devices on a single chip, and contains RAM and (or) ROM. In fact, it is a single-chip computer capable of performing relatively simple tasks. It differs from the microprocessor integrated in the chip I / O devices, timers and other peripheral devices. The use of a sufficiently powerful computing device with wide capabilities built on a single chip instead of a whole set in a modern microcontroller significantly reduces the size, power consumption and cost of devices built on its base. Used in the management of various devices and their individual units: in computing: motherboards, hard disk and floppy disk drive controllers, CD and DVD, calculators; electronics and various devices of household appliances that use electronic control systems - washing machines, microwave ovens, dishwashers, telephones and modern appliances, various robots, smart home systems, etc. In industry: industrial automation devices - from a programmable relay and embedded systems to PLC, machine control systems.


A microprocessor is a processor (a device responsible for performing arithmetic, logical operations and control operations recorded in computer code) implemented as a single chip or a set of several specialized chips (as opposed to implementing a processor as an electrical circuit on a general-purpose element base or as a software model). The first microprocessors appeared in the 1970s and were used in electronic calculators, they used binary-decimal arithmetic of 4-bit words. Soon they began to be embedded in other devices, such as terminals, printers, and various automation. Available 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing allowed the creation of the first consumer microcomputers in the mid-1970s. For a long time, central processors were created from separate microcircuits of large and medium integration, containing from several units to several hundred transistors. Having placed the whole processor on a single chip of super-large integration, it was possible to significantly reduce its cost. Despite a modest start, the continuous increase in microprocessor complexity has led to the almost complete obsolescence of other forms of computers. Currently, one or more microprocessors are used as a computing element in everything, from the smallest embedded systems and mobile devices to huge mainframes and supercomputers.

Construction equipment

Crane technology

Among crane equipment, they emit tower, automobile, self-propelled crawler, gantry, bridge, grab, beam, roof, console, adjustable, gantry cranes, as well as railway-running cranes. Self-propelled crawler cranes are based on tracked chassis. This design, of course, reduces the possibility of transporting cranes, but it achieves a high lifting height and an increase in the mass of the cargo, which is dictated by the increasing height of the erected structures and the development of large-block installation. The refusal of independence of relocation of the crane from the object to the object required the introduction of the principle of aggregate construction - this allows greatly facilitate the dismantling and transportation of nodes. Modern crawler cranes can operate from their own diesel-electric unit, and from the external network. Powerful self-propelled crawler cranes typically include a chassis and turning parts, a winch, a rotation mechanism, generator and diesel-electric stations, an assembly rack, a cabin, a turntable, boom and tower-boom equipment, cargo suspensions and hook clips. For road transportation, a special transport equipment is attached to the crane, transforming it into a semi-trailer. Rail-mounted cranes move around the construction site (cargo port, etc.) thanks to the railway track. Tower cranes are common in construction. Today, construction technology has changed: monolithic and brick-monolithic construction prevails. One of the heaviest elements at the construction site was an elevator shaft weighing 7.6 tons. High-rise buildings are being built mostly now. Accordingly, the needs of builders have changed, including with respect to tower cranes.

Roofing equipment

Roofing equipment is roof cutters, bitumen boilers, equipment for repair and restoration of the roof. Choosing the right equipment to perform a rational repair of the roll covering is very difficult due to the large number of recommended repair methods, the impossibility of visually determining the boundaries of the roof areas in need of repair, and poor knowledge of factors contributing to the destruction of the roof covering. Thus, new models of boilers used to heat bitumen and bitumen-containing mastics appeared, roof cutters were developed and used in the repair process. Instead of a ruberoid, on a cardboard basis, deposited materials with a bitumen or bitumen-polymer base appeared and an infrared emitter providing heating of these materials when repair is necessary. What you first need to pay attention to when choosing a particular model of roofing equipment? Moreover, most of the following items can and even need to be transferred to any newly purchased metalworking equipment. First, of course, the fame of the brand. The more famous the brand, the more dealers represent a particular brand, the longer it is present on the market, in magazines and at exhibitions, the more likely that the purchased equipment will serve you for a long time, producing products of the required quality. A wide representation of the brand on the market guarantees not only high quality, but also unconditional support, both for dealers and end customers, as a manufacturer of equipment providing warranty and post warranty service. Secondly, the warranty period taken by the manufacturer. For some brands that have proven themselves well in our country and in the republics of the former USSR, they provide a guarantee of up to two years. Thirdly, the unconditional presence of the nameplate with the serial number of the machine, the coordinates of the manufacturer, indicating the telephone for communication and specifications. This item is inextricably linked with the previous item on the warranty, because it is the presence of the nameplate with the machine number that allows the manufacturer to be confident that it is about its product.

Concrete mixers

A concrete mixer (concrete mixer, concrete mixer) is a construction machine designed for the preparation of concrete mixtures. Concrete mixers are classified as follows. According to the principle of action: gravitational works due to the principle of the natural collapse of the mixture (under the action of gravity) in the drum. In such a drum, the blades are fixedly mounted, which do not allow the components to slide along the walls during rotation, thereby ensuring mixing. Gravity mixers are mainly used as small mobile concrete mixers. Their advantage is the ability to mix any other bulk products. Among manufactured concrete mixers of the gravitational type of mixing, truck mixers usually have the largest volume, which combine the function of transporting a concrete mix and its simultaneous mixing. Self-loading concrete mixers of all manufacturers, without exception, are equipped with gravity mixers; Forced action has a fixed drum and rotating working blades, with the help of which mixing takes place. A forced-type concrete mixer allows the preparation of concrete mixtures of a more uniform composition and, consequently, of higher quality. As a result, forced concrete mixers are used mainly as part of mixing blocks, concrete nodes, concrete plants. Types of working bodies of forced concrete mixers: dish-shaped, planetary, turbulent, horizontal (with one or two shafts); continuous action; periodic action. Depending on the size of the aggregate: concrete mixers - the size of the solid filler fraction is from 20 to 70 mm; mortar mixers are machines that work with components of smaller fractions. If possible, move concrete mixers: mobile; stationary (have great performance).

Welding equipment

Welding is the process of obtaining permanent joints by establishing interatomic bonds between the parts to be welded during their local or general heating, plastic deformation, or the joint action of both. machines, devices and devices necessary for the manufacture of welded products from blanks. A complex of technologically interconnected welding equipment for performing welding work with one or another participation of the welder is called a welding station, installation, and when combining several posts or installations it is called a line. There are posts and installations for arc, contact, gas, electron beam and other methods of welding. The welding equipment includes: welding machines and machines with power sources and devices for performing the welding process itself; technological devices for quick assembly of parts for welding, holding them during operation and preventing or reducing distortion of the welded product; auxiliary equipment for moving products in the process of welding, fastening and moving welding machines; tool welder. In addition, when welding, various vehicles, instruments for quality control of the welded joint, etc. are used. The technical characteristics of the welding equipment are determined by the chosen welding method, the nature of production and the degree of process mechanization (manual, semi-automatic or automatic welding). A welding post is a section of the production area on which a current source, electrical conductor, necessary technological devices and welders tools are located. To protect others from radiation, the area is fenced with curtains or shields. In the conditions of modern production, automated installations are widespread. Such stationary posts are placed in the shop. In field conditions, for welding of large-sized products, on construction, when performing repair work, etc., they organize mobile posts.

Sandblasting equipment

Sandblasting is a cold abrasive treatment of the surface of a stone, glass, metal products or teeth by damaging its surface with sand or other abrasive powder sprayed by an air stream, and during hydro-abrasive treatment with a stream of water or other liquid. Abrasive blast cleaning options are varied. Since new materials are regularly invented in industry and the need arises to process new surfaces, manufacturers of abrasive blasting equipment and materials have to continuously improve their technologies and equipment. Sandblasting equipment is a modern device designed for processing various surfaces - glass, metal, stone, and so on. This device ideally copes with such contaminants as traces of scale or rust, oily stains, as well as with the remnants of the old protective coating, effectively cleaning the surface. When choosing sandblasting equipment, its main characteristics should be taken into account: operating pressure; the maximum amount of air supplied; air flow rate. Compared